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Male Infertility

Male infertility is a common reproductive problem with up to 1 out of 3 infertility cases linked partly to issues with the male.

There are a number of tests available to help confirm the diagnosis and advances in medical technology mean it’s now possible to treat the condition.

Causes of male infertility:

Male fertility may be impaired by a number of factors;

  • Sperm production: The quality and quantity of sperm
  • Varicoceles: a condition characterised by swelling of the veins that supply the testicle
  • Backward ejaculation of the sperm
  • Blockage of the sperm carrying ducts
  • Development of sperm antibodies (auto-immune disorder)
  • Hormonal/stress problems
  • Infections/tumours of the male reproductive system
  • Genetics (chromosomal disorders)
  • Sexual problems
  • Use of certain medications such as steroids
  • Excessive radiation exposure affects the sperm production
  • Work related causes (example: laptop use elevates the temperature of the testes leading to low sperm production)
  • Smoking and alcohol abuse


Dr. Ong will diagnose male infertility based on the following investigations:

  • Medical history
  • Complete physical examination
  • Semen analysis: involving a lab test on provided sample
  • Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate: to detect any obstruction of the ducts transporting sperm
  • Scrotal ultrasound: to diagnose abnormalities of the scrotum or testicles
  • Testicular biopsy: A small piece of tissue is evaluated under the microscope to help determine the cause of infertility
  • Anti-sperm antibody tests tracing antibodies that attack sperm


  • Surgery: in cases of varicocele and obstruction of the sperm duct to improve sperm motion
  • Medications/Antibiotics: for infections of the reproductive system
  • Treatment for sexual problems: Counseling about sex and relationships can help boost fertility levels
  • Male hormone replacement therapy may be used to treat hormonal deficiency
  • Assisted reproductive technology (ART): revolutionary treatment procedures including in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • Lifestyle modification: changing habits such as not smoking, limiting alcohol intake and reducing stress